Friday, August 23, 2019
A discussion on Health Related Issues and Interventions for School Age Children - Research Paper Example A number of health related issues arise at this age and their successful mitigation helps children develop normally into adolescent and adulthood. Without proper measure in place to address these health related issues, developmental problems may arise ranging from behavioural problems to physical and mental problems. This paper is going to look at a number of child health related problems such as childhood obesity and overweight issues, bullying, accidents and injuries, social network and the media, child abuse and neglect and the various interventions that could be employed to either prevent or lessen the impacts of these issues on school age children. Childhood obesity and overweight Last year, the Australia bureau of statistics reported the continued rise of childhood obesity over the last 40 years. The report indicated that the level of childhood obesity has increased substantially and is even projected to approach adult rates within 30 years. The report showed that 26.1% of chil dren between the ages of 5-15 were overweight or obese in 2007-08. In 2009 the same was 26.5% making a 0.4% increase in one year (ABS, 2011). The report attributed this rise to sedentary pursuits which include watching television and playing computer games. In 2005 the world health organization reported that 20 million children under 5 years were overweight. Latest statistics by the World health organization also indicate that 40 million children under the age of five years are overweight or suffer from obesity in 2010. These statistics are quite alarming making the issue a global concern (WHO, 2012). Scholars argue that overweight and obesity in childhood especially in older children can lead to serious and severe obesity and weight issues in adulthood. They also say that childhood and adolescent obesity poses a higher risk of premature death and disability later on in life (Kumanyika & Brownson, 2007, p. 51). Literature also suggests children who are obese or overweight normally e ncounter several physical risks and are at a greater risk of social isolation. Such children also are at the risk of developing psychological disorders than those who are in a healthy weight range (Vichuda L Mathews, 2011, pp. 4-6: Justin, 2005, p.84). Research also indicates other consequences of overweight and obesity and these include the development of chronic conditions such as chronic respiratory problems such as sleep apnoea and breathlessness; chronic musculoskeletal problems such as lower back pains and osteoarthritis; gall bladder disease and impaired fertility and well as chronic cardiovascular problems (Dehghan, Akhtar-Danesh, & Merchant, 2005, p. 24). Scholars have proposed a number of strategies in which childhood obesity could be reduced. Such intervention measures have been in existence for quite some time now. Their application is case specific and some could still be applied to solve the problem generally. Telford et al. (2012, 371 )in their study found out that an appropriately designed and administered physical education program (PE) is capable of producing benefits for elementary school children by reducing the percentage increase of body fat but also led to significant enhancement of numeracy development. Other studies have also supported the idea of physical education in helping in the primary prevention of overweight and obesity. Davis et al. (2012, p. 243) in their study propose school based initiatives that include physical activity and also provide opportunities for physical education and recess programs as very important in the prevention of obesity. It is argued that physical activity helps reduce adiposity in
Knowledge Management, Social Networks and Innovation - Essay Example Through this, organizations aim to acquire and create potentially useful knowledge that can be used to achieve maximum effective usage to influence the organizational performance positively. What has been learned is then embedded into the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s fabric through organizational learning that is complementary to knowledge management (Easterby et al, 1999). A company like China Telecom happens to be the largest fixed-line service provider in China. It is also the third largest mobile telecommunication provider in the country. The company offers an attractive full range of integrated information, application services, and internet connection. It has over 200,000 staff members with branches in other regions of the Americas, Hong Kong, Europe and Macao. In order to stay competitive, the company accelerates creation of new products through optimal use of its worker base in a unified innovation process. To facilitate collaboration among employees, customers, and partners the company developed innovation platforms with Web portal interfaces. The portal in turn accepts ideas and innovative experiences from the enlarged community. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing team analyzes new acquired information that is gathered from the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ Web 2.0 entries and uses the information to introduce and launch new products and services with the kn owledge that subscriber demand exists. The company embraces an open dialog with its customers, employees and partners through social tools that involve them in internal and external processes. By using social networking tools like social media tools, a culture of information sharing is encouraged within an organization. They provide a gateway for the exchange of current and relevant information across organizational silos and geographies. To drive a social change in the work force it is essential for organizations to build trust and encourage social interactions. Social networking tools also empower employees and
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Writing an excellent outcome Essay Always remember that the experiences and outcomes should have an impact on classroom practice and learning. The outcomes should not be written in the form of assessment criteria, nor should they constrain learning. Every outcome should therefore be tested against the following criteria: 1. It should express learning that is clear to the teacher, and where possible the young person. This will promote the application of formative assessment strategies. 2. It should indicate the purpose of the outcome and/or direct the selection of learning activities for all children and young people. 3. It should allow evaluation of the outcome. In other words, it should be clear from the outcome what evidence might be observed to demonstrate progress by the child or young person. Also bear in mind that there is no intention to produce an elaborated curriculum. Outcomes should therefore offer and support opportunities for enrichment and development for those young people with additional support needs who may not progress beyond the first levels. As you complete blocks of work a further test is to consider the extent to which you have prioritised and simplified existing guidance and to ask yourself if any changes are robust and justifiable. As a general rule outcomes should begin with the Ã¢â¬ËI canÃ¢â¬â¢ stem. Experiences describe purposeful and worthwhile tasks, activities or events that contribute to motivation, personal development and learning. As a general rule they should be signalled using the Ã¢â¬ËI haveÃ¢â¬â¢ stem. The following additional general parameters will help you get started. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Simplification and prioritisation should result in time and space being made to operate the seven principles of curriculum design. For example, teachers should have time for greater depth of study, to introduce topics or ideas in a relevant context or to respond to local events or circumstances and to ensure progression. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assume your outcomes can be taught within the time allocations typically applied in schools at present. Ã Some outcomes should ask young people to draw together, consolidate and synthesise their earlier learning in some way e. g. by summarising, generalising or applying earlier learning. Ã You should aim to embed cross-curricular aspects, including skills, within the outcomes. To help you a cross curricular skills set is being identified. TheÃ¢â¬â¢ Core SkillsÃ¢â¬â¢ of Communication, Numeric, Information Technology, Problem Solving and Working with Others are part of the National Qualifications framework. In due course the two sets will be assimilated. Skills will be embedded in the outcomes using the skills reference set. Ã Progression within and between levels will be indicated through the chosen content or context. During the next stage you will be refining the outcomes and experiences in light of feedback and these will be built up into a database. This is under development, and may include the following fields: Curriculum area and level, Outcomes, Links with the 4 capacities, Links with cross-cutting themes, Links with other curriculum areas and Links with the skills set. There will be important work to ensure that cross-curricular aspects including skills development are being addressed in a consistent and coherent way across the entire curriculum. The quality assurance process Please remember that until final versions of the guidelines are prepared, all work is Ã¢â¬Ëworks in progress and therefore subject to scrutiny and change. While work is in preparation for engagement it should be treated with an appropriate level of confidentiality. Opportunities will be found to bring all writers together from time to time to compare notes on progress to allow debate and challenge and to ensure everyone feels supported as part of a bigger team.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Active Chemical Ingredients in Topical First Aid Treatments AN INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ACTIVE CHEMICAL INGREDIENTS IN TOPICAL FIRST AID TREATMENTS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. Aim The aim of this investigation is to experimentally determine which first aid product and its active ingredients are most effective against Staphylococcus aureus, and to establish how and why the chemical compounds of the active ingredients in each product affected the results. Introduction The idea for this exploration was developed as a result of an experiment and study that were conducted and taught in my medical microbiology class. The specific lesson that caught my interest was focused on the skin flora as well as infection causing bacteria. This, combined with the lab about the effects of specific antibiotics on bacteria as well as my considerable experience with first aid and disaster response skills led me to think about the importance of antibiotics for medication and treatments. I decided that my investigation would concentrate on topical first aid products against the occasionally pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, a member of the skin flora. My choice to pick a ubiquitous bacterium was because I wanted to focus on the more practical implementations of the investigation and could evaluate for myself which first aid product would be most useful in real world applications. Background Ã This investigation requires background information about the biochemistry or mechanisms of action in specific compounds and the Kirby-Bauer test. These are described below. Kirby-Bauer Test The Kirby-Bauer test or disk diffusion tests allows for scientists to test the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria. A disk is impregnated with a substance and placed on a petri dish and a zone of inhibition or inhibition zone appears after days or hours after incubation. The inhibition zone represents the area in which the bacteria has stopped growing or has been killed by the antibiotic. The size of the inhibition zone indicates the effectiveness of the antibiotic (the larger the diameter of the zone of inhibition the more effective the substance is). Mechanism of Action in Compounds This investigation focuses on five specific compounds which are active first aid antiseptic or antibiotic ingredients in the products that will be tested. These compounds are: benzalkonium chloride, triclosan, bacitracin zinc, polymyxin B sulfate, and neomycin sulfate. This information will be sectioned into Part A, B, C, D, and E. Part A: Benzalkonium Chloride Benzalkonium chloride is a member of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) which are also known as cationic agents/surfactants. Furthermore, quaternary ammonium compounds have positively charged structures. Thus, the cationic zone of benzalkonium chloride disrupts the intermolecular attractions/electrostatic interactions of the negatively charged cell components, destroys the outer membrane, and ultimately kills the pathogen. Part B: Triclosan Triclosan works to inhibit bacterial growth through its mechanomolecular energy. This mechanomolecular energy is as a result of the ether single-bond rotations on the central oxygen atom. Subsequently, the rapid and fluctuating vibratory movements of the bonds in the molecule disrupt bacterial membranes which easily allow the chemical compound to enter the cells membrane. Once triclosan enters the cell membrane, it binds and blocks the active sites of the enoyl-acyl carrier-protein reductase enzyme (ENR) thus preventing the process of fatty acid synthesis. This fatty acid process is critical for building the pathogens cell membrane and its other vital functions necessary for processes like reproduction. Furthermore, at extremely low concentrations, triclosan can develop into a crystalline form by ring stacking, thus interfering with essential enzymes including the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) coenzyme of bacteria. Figure 1: Figure 1 visualizes the two benzene rings and the central oxygen atom in the Triclosan compound. Part C: Bacitracin Zinc Bacitracin has antimicrobial activity primarily because of its ability to bind to divalent metal ions, in this case the ZnÃ ²Ã Ã º cation, resulting in bacitracin zinc. The ZnÃ ²Ã Ã º ion forms a ternary 1:1:1 antibiotic-metal-lipid complex. This means that the divalent metal ion complex can tightly bind to the lipid CÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬ ¦-isoprenyl pyrophosphate molecules of the cell, acting like a bridge between the pyrophosphate and bacitracin zinc. Once the CÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬ ¦-isoprenyl pyrophosphate has been compromised due to its inability to dephosphorylate or remove its phosphate (PO43Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢) through the pyrophosphatase enzyme and hydrolysis process, the pyrophosphate can no longer transport lipids into the cell-wall. Subsequently, this inhibits the process of cell-wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the cell wall and ultimately leads to bacterial death. Part D: Polymyxin B Sulfate The mechanism of action of polymyxin B sulfate is similar to that of benzalkonium chloride, in that it is also classified as a cationic surfactant. Therefore, like benzalkonium chloride, polymyxin B sulfate alters the external membrane of bacterial cells. Additionally, because of its positively charged amino group in the cyclic peptide region in the compound, it has an electrostatic attraction for the negatively charged lipopolysaccharide layer of bacterial cells and binds to these specific sites. Once these sites have been compromised, the outer membrane of the bacterial cell becomes destabilized and weakened. Figure 2: Figure 2 visualizes the amino group and cyclic peptide region of polymyxin B sulfate which is the primary mechanism of antimicrobial action within the compound. Part E: Neomycin Sulfate Neomycin sulfate is classified as an aminoglycoside antibiotic which means it has an amino group (-NHÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬Å¡) attached to derivatives of sugar called glycosides. Aminoglycosides are highly positive in charge due to the presence of amino groups and have a high electrostatic attraction for the negatively charged outer surface of bacteria. This electrostatic interaction disrupts the membrane of the bacteria due to the displacement of MgÃ ²Ã Ã º and CaÃ ²Ã Ã º bridges and creates temporary openings in the bacterial cell membrane. Subsequently, this process causes intracellular content leakage and further increases the antibiotic intake in the bacteria. Additionally, rRNA molecules of bacteria are highly negative in charge because of the presence of phosphate groups. This negative charge has an electrostatic attraction with the positively charged antibiotic and allows the aminoglycoside to easily bind to the rRNA of the bacteria and thereafter inhibits the process of protei n synthesis leading to bacterial cell death. Prediction The initial prediction is that NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment will be the most effective compared to Bactine Spray and CVS Health Instant First Aid Spray because it is a triple antibiotic and has a greater variety of active ingredients that can kill bacteria. Experimental Procedure and Methodology Variables The independent variables for this experiment are the different first aid products because each product should influence the dependent variable (diameter of inhibition zone). The dependent variable is the size of the inhibition zones because the length depends on what first aid product is used. The controls of the investigation are the incubation time, petri dish, Staphylococcus aureus, method of inoculation, the incubator, and the amount of each drug because they are variables that are kept constant throughout each trial and for each product tested. It is important to maintain the controls throughout all trials so that measurements can be as consistent as possible. Safety and Environmental Ethics It is important to keep in mind the risks and safety precautions before attempting this experiment. These risks include residual bacterial contamination on the skin and burning. It is highly advised to wear gloves or rubber insulator gloves when needed and to wash hands frequently throughout the experiment. Additionally, an environmental ethical consideration must be taken in account because experimenting with antibacterial products can contribute to antibacterial resistance. However, the effects would be negligible due to the small scale size of the experiment. Materials 125 ml of Agar Absorbent bibulous paper Hole puncher Sharpie Ruler (with millimeters) Gloves 12 Petri dishes Incubator @34 Ã °C; set at 4.5 12 strips of Parafilm Forceps Tweezers Large beaker Hot plate Rubber insulator gloves Bunsen burner Strikers Inoculating loop Staphylococcus aureus NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment Bactine Spray CVS Health Instant First Aid Spray Procedure Heat up 125 ml of agar in a beaker filled with water on a hotplate and wait until the agar is clear all the way through. Use forceps and rubber insulator gloves to remove the agar out of the beaker. Pour about the same amount of agar in each petri dish and wait until the agar sets (5-10 minutes). Use isolated Staphylococcus aureus and a heated and then cooled inoculating loop to carefully swab the culture into the 12 petri dishes. Make sure to go in a zigzag motion and cover all areas. Label each petri dish #1-#3: NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment #4-#6: Bactine Spray #7-#9: CVS Health Instant First Aid Spray #10-#12: Control Punch at least 12 holes into absorbent bibulous paper. Soak the disks with each of the drug solutions. Use tweezers that have been heated up and cooled down with water to minimize bacterial contamination. Additionally, each time a different product is being impregnated into the disks, reheat and cool the tweezers to minimize cross-product contamination. Place three disks containing NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment in petri dishes #1, #2, and #3. Place three disks containing Bactine Spray in petri dishes #4, #5, #6. Place three disks containing CVS Health Instant First Aid Spray in petri dishes #7, #8, #9. Leave the remaining three petri dishes with no disks in order to show that the petri dishes have pure cultures of Staphylococcus aureus. Use parafilm to seal all the petri dishes. Flip over all petri dishes and place in incubator at 34 Ã °C on the 4.5 setting (the optimal temperature and conditions for bacterial growth) Measure the diameter of the inhibition zones (including the disk) 48 hours post inoculation with a ruler (in mm) and record data. Repeat all steps for Trial 2 and Trial 3 making sure all conditions are maintained. Results Product Name Table 1: Recorded Length of Inhibition Zones on Staphylococcus aureusÃ ¡Ã µÃâ Trial 1 Ã ± 0.5 mm Trial 2 Ã ± 0.5 mm Trial 3 Ã ± 0.5 mm Mean Ã ± 0.5 mmÃ ¡Ã µÃ¢â¬ ¡ NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment 14.0 17.0 16.0 15.4 14.0 16.0 18.0 12.0 16.0 16.0 Bactine Spray 12.0 16.0 18.0 16.3 16.0 17.0 18.0 16.0 14.0 20.0 CVS Health Instant First Aid Spray 7.0 0.0 8.0 5.2 0.0 8.0 8.0 0.0 7.0 9.0 a- Diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) including disk diameter of 6mm b- Average diameter of inhibition zone after 3 trials for each product *The values that were found to have 0.0mm were petri dishes that had no zone of inhibition *Controls were not included as they only served to show that the petri dishes had pure samples of Staphylococcus aureus and are irrelevant to be included in the processed data Conclusion and Evaluation The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effectiveness of the active chemical ingredients in topical first aid treatments against Staphylococcus aureus. The initial aims of the investigation have been reached. The results of the experiment have suggested that Bactine Spray is the most effective against Staphylococcus aureus followed by NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment then CVS Health Instant First Aid Spray. Thus, the initial prediction was incorrect. Bactine Spray contained 0.13% of benzalkonium chloride and in this investigation had an average length of 16.3 mm for its zone of inhibition (Table 1). According to a study done by Ali Fazlara (a member of the Department of Food Hygiene at Shahid Chamran University) and Maryam Ekhtelat (a researcher at Shahid Chamran University in the Department of Microbiology) found that because Staphylococcus aureus has a highly negative charge on its cell wall due to its slight anionic teichoic acids and peptidoglycan molecules, it allows for the cationic benzalkonium chloride to bind easily to specficically Staphylococcus aureus cell wall and thus block the active sites for essential enzymes to undergo their normal biochemical reactions for the bacterial cell. Therefore, benzalkonium chloride should theoretically be highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus. The data collected seems to support this and underpins the known fact that benzalkonium chloride is bacteriostatic (a chemical agent t hat stops bacteria from reproducing) at low concentrations. The investigation also suggests that NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment was the second most effective against Staphylococcus aureus compared with the Bactine Spray and CVS Health Instant First Aid Spray. The active ingredients within this first aid product are bacitracin zinc (400 units), neomycin sulfate (3.5mg), and polymyxin B sulfate (5,000 units). NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment resulted in an average zone of inhibition diameter of 15.4 mm, as shown in Table 1. The possible reason for why NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment was not as effective against Staphylococcus aureus in this investigation is because of antibacterial resistance to some or all of the active ingredients by the bacteria. Studies have proposed that the isolate primarily found in the United States called USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has been increasingly discovered to have been resistant to neomycin sulfate, bacitracin zinc, and polymyxin B sulfate. In this investigation, it can be suggested that CVS Health Instant First Aid Spray, with a concentration of 0.13% of triclosan was the least effective against Staphylococcus aureus. It resulted in an average zone of inhibition diameter of 5.2 mm according to Table 1. A possible conclusion that can be reached based on the results is the increasingly proven theory that Staphylococcus aureus has a progressively high antimicrobial resistance to triclosan. This is due in part because triclosan was the most common active ingredient in over the counter (OTC) products, which contributed greatly to Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. As a matter of fact, the FDA banned triclosan on consumer antibacterial wash products because of the health related risks from bacterial resistance. However, some products still use triclosan because it banned to be used in soaps. These conclusions are incomplete and require improvements in order to thoroughly and further confirm the results and achieve consistent values. The addition of more trials would further eliminate any systematic errors that may have occurred such as error when impregnating disks with the products or cross-product contamination. Any instances of random error can be best alleviated by the use of a Vernier calliper (a measuring instrument that is used for measuring diameters) instead of a ruler. The use of a calliper to measure would contribute to higher precision and less measurement uncertainty. Extending the investigation to other normal bacterial skin flora would be interesting to see the extent of the effectiveness of Bactine Spray, NEOSPORINÃ ® Original Ointment, and CVS Health Instant First Aid Spray on different bacteria. Works Cited Ã Ã Chittapragada, Maruthi, and Sarah Roberts. Aminoglycosides: Molecular Insights on the Recognition of RNA and Aminoglycoside Mimics. Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry, 2009. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754922/. Accessed 15 Feb. 2017. Economou, Nicoleta J., et al. High-resolution crystal structure reveals molecular details of target recognition by bacitracin. 2013. www.pnas.org/content/110/35/14207.full.pdf. Accessed 13 Feb. 2017. Fazlara, Ali, and Maryam Ekhtelat. The Disinfectant Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Some Important Foodborne Pathogens. IDOSI, 2012. www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes12(1)12/4.pdf. Accessed 16 Feb. 2017. Federal Drug Administration. FDA Issues Final Rule on Safety and Effectiveness of Antibacterial Soaps. U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page, 2 Sept. 2016, www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm517478.htm. Accessed 16 Feb. 2017. Kaya, Deniz. Quarternary Ammonium Compounds. 21 Jan. 2010, Accessed 9 Feb. 2017. Kling, Jim. Antibiotic Ointments May Fuel Resistance and Spread of MRSA. Medscape, 14 Sept. 2011, www.medscape.com/viewarticle/749666. Accessed 16 Feb. 2017. Maxka, Jim. Organic Chemistry Interactive Notes. Organic Chemistry, North Arizona University. Arizona. Reading. McDonnell, Gerald, and A. D. Russell. Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 1999. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC88911/. Accessed 9 Feb. 2017. Petersen, Richard C. Triclosan Antimicrobial Polymers. HHS Public Access, 2016. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4893770/. Accessed 12 Feb. 2017. . Triclosan Computational Conformational Chemistry Analysis ForAntimicrobial Properties in Polymers. HHS Public Access, 2015. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4394635/. Accessed 12 Feb. 2017. Polymxyin B Sulfate. Digital Photograph. Accessed 13 Feb. 2017. Pub Chem. Aerosporin | C56H100N16O17S PubChem. The PubChem Project, pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Polymyxin_B_sulfate#section=Related-Compounds. Accessed 13 Feb. 2017. Ramin Khajavi, Morteza Sattari and Ali Ashjaran, 2007. The Antimicrobial Effect of Benzalkonium Chloride on Some Pathogenic Microbes Observed on Fibers of Acrylic Carpet. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 598-601. Stone, K. J., and Jack L. Strominger. Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin: Complexation with Metal Ion and C55-Isoprenyl Pyrophosphate. 1971. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC389626/pdf/pnas00087-0326.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb. 2017. Tay, William M., et al. 1H NMR, Mechanism, and Mononuclear Oxidative Activity ofthe Antibiotic Metallopeptide Bacitracin: The Role of D-Glu-4,Interaction with Pyrophosphate Moiety, DNA Binding andCleavage, and Bioactivity. JACS Articles, 2010. Accessed 13 Feb. 2017. Unblok Bio Solutions. Ammonium. Unblok Bio-Fix, unblok.co/ammonium/. Accessed 9 Feb. 2017.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
And Learning English With The Help Of Computers Education Essay This study attempts to explore and analyse the role of computers in the process of teaching and learning English in an Argentinean private school of English. The main aim is to investigate and understand the use of computers in the classroom and to discover whether they contribute to foster the process of learning English. The different teaching situations are examined as well as the activities carried out in the classroom and the students and teachers roles. The environments in which students learn and the ways in which people work and live are constantly being transformed by existing and emerging technologies. Hence, technological changes appears to influence everyone in society and challenge the traditional process of teaching and learning, as well as the way in which education is managed. The emergence of the radio, television, tape players and videos became important resources for teachers to support their lessons and the same occurred in the seventies and eighties when personal computers reached the markets. It seems to be useful to carry out this research in order to find the advantages that technology, especially computers, offers to education considering two groups of learners from two different school of English in OlavarrÃ a, which is a city in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Many theories have been presented by various researches and there is still controversy among this topic. Thus, delving into such important aspects is essential to be experimented in order to formulate our own conclusions. This paper will be aimed at gathering meaningful findings which may help teachers in general to start considering the use of computers and the Internet in the different classrooms. (change or accommodate) Warschauer (1996) suggests that technology turned out to be an essential tool in education as it provides students with valuable connections with teachers, other schools and pupils, as well as a wide network of professionals around the globe. Nowadays, these significant technologies are used in education in order to improve it and make students take full advantage of them. Nevertheless, fostering the use of computers seems to be complex issue to be implemented in Argentineans classrooms due to the lack of resources. As a result, few schools have the possibility to take advantage of the available technology and teachers tend to avoid this new tool. The purpose of this work is to show whether the use of computers and the Internet stimulates students to learn a foreign language and help them to develop the different macro skills efficiently. Expectations are directed towards the activities that learners are able to do with technology that they would not be able to do without it. The findings of this research will bring valuable foundations to reflect upon the advantages of introducing computer assisted language learning (CALL) in the process of teaching and learning a foreign language. Literature review The roles of computers in the classroom The integration of computers in education has been discussed widely and much attention has been devoted to their role in the classrooms. The first implementation of computers in education was around the 1960s but their use was very limited. From that time onwards, the developments of computers grew and the role it has in education nowadays is that of an instructional tool for delivering information that can stimulate teaching and learning. Computer assisted language learning (CALL) is becoming a relevant area and might help teachers to motivate students to learn through technology. Bergel and GonzÃ ¡lez (2009) states that web-based tools might cater for real life communicative needs, and they allow students to become more autonomous and to interact with other learners, teachers and society in general. It has also been stated that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ certain types of learners may be better suited to some CALL materials than other students (Chapelle Jamieson, 1986, p. 27). The authors assured that students who are not field independent, for example, show a significant preference for using CALL. There are three stages of Computer assisted language learning identifiable in recent years. According to Warschauer (1996), there exists three phases of CALL: Behaviouristic: is based on behaviourist learning theory, and it focuses on repetitive language drills. In this stage, the computer is viewed as a tutor acting as a medium for sending instructions and materials to students. Communicative: The second phase of CALL emerged in the !970s and 1980s when the communicative approach to the teaching of a foreign language was in vogue. This stage emerged when educators felt that the drilling approach did not allow enough authentic communication. The computer is used for skill practice, but there no drilling techniques are used. There is more learner choice, control and interaction. Now, the emphasis is on learning as a creative process of discovery, expression and development. In this case, the purpose of the CALL activity is not so much to have students discover the right answer, but rather to stimulate students discussion, writing, or critical thinking (Warschauer, 1996, p. 3). Integrative: it focuses on a social o socio-cognitive view of learning. The use of language in a more authentic context is emphasised, which encourages students to construct meaning using computers. This phase is based on two important technological developments: multimedia and the Internet. Multimedia technology, brings many advantages and it can only be found in a computer. What makes multimedia even more powerful is that it also entails hypermedia. That means that the multimedia resources are all linked together and that learners can navigate their own path simply by pointing and clicking a mouse (Warschauer, 1996, p. 4). The Internet with the Web 2.0 offers all users the possibility to create, upload and edit texts, besides other interactive tools. Learners can create and exchange information freely. The development from one stage to another does not mean the rejection of the previous stage. All of them are integrated and complement to each other. At present, CALL is in vogue and many researchers have agreed on the advantages it gives to learn a foreign language. It is noticeable that CALL might give the possibility to learn a language as it can be a tutor which offers language drills or skill practice; a stimulus for discussion and interaction; or a tool for writing and research. With the advent of the Internet, it can also be a medium of global communication and a source of limitless authentic materials (Warschauer, 1996, p. 7). As said by Garret (1991), computers can serve a variety of uses for language teaching but the use of the computer does not constitute a method but a medium in which a variety of methods, approaches, and pedagogical philosophies may be implemented (p. 75). Teachers appear to be the ones who are responsible for introducing new technological methods to their classes and guide students towards a better learning. Computers as teaching and learning tools Reading and vocabulary: using computers in the classroom for reading, which include articles taken from the Internet, might support the development of reading skills among students. Kasper (2000) states that these reading materials which are taken from the Internet supply a variety of modern, authentic texts if compared to materials sourced from textbooks. As some researchers have conducted various studies on the use of technology in foreign language teaching, there is one empirical study which showed that two dissimilar group of students were given the same language activity, but in different modes: in the traditional pen-and-paper format and using computers. After the activity, Bruce Levin (1997) were able to identify the different degrees of motivation towards both tasks arguing that computer-assisted version of the activity was found more highly motivating and beneficial for the group of learners which were observed. The skill of writing, for example, is at present the subject of a considerable amount of research. Mills (1996) affirms that writing is mainly a social act concerned first and foremost with cognition and always associated to context. In general, writing seems to be a solitary act in which students generally fulfil an assignment either at home or at school to be handed in to their teachers. The social aspects of writing are diminished when there is a restriction on the social space where readers and writers come together (Mills, 1996, p. 2). Thus, using the tools that the internet is offering might help to abridge the distance between writers and readers. Communication with native speakers allows learners to practise specific skills such as discussing, asking for clarification, negotiating meaning, persuading others, clarifying different aspects, asking for information, etcetera. Warschauer and Meskill (2000) state that Computer based discussion which takes place outside the classroom increases students opportunities to communicate in another forum, affording both general language practice and practice in writing (p. 8). According to Larson (1999), the transactional nature of the Internet and the pedagogical relevance of state-of-the-art web-based interactive technologies make web-based instruction a viable vehicle for foreign language education. There could more research done in this area to further investigate the option of using the Internet to facilitate foreign language learning and thus, main findings will serve as sharing research-based knowledge which will enrich the different investigations that have been done so far. Bergel and GonzÃ ¡lez (Ibid.) argues that word-processors, blogs, wikis and emails among others seem to contribute to the learning of a foreign language and increase students motivation promoting contact with authentic language. Computers ought to be integrated in the school environment as it has become an increasingly important feature of the learning situation for students in general, as well as a significant element to the teaching of a foreign language and that is the reason why teachers should find a way to introduce it in the teaching-learning situation The invention of the printing press has transformed the intellectual life of the world and has improved the learning conditions. By the same token, computers have done a similar work nowadays for, with the click of a mouse, we are able to see what is taking place in the world. Therefore, Larson (Ibid.) claims that it is extremely significant to consider these opportunities that technology offers to the educational system taking account of the students level that is the most suitable in each situation. In the present study, the advantages of using technology for learning a foreign language will be discussed, trying to demonstrate such advantages upon a group of learners. What role does the instructor (teacher) play in this aspect, and how important is the instructors presence? What is the technologys effect on the learning of the foreign language and skills? Do students enjoy the experience and feel motivated? Do students perceive that they improved their skill or performance in learning with the help of technology? The answers to these questions will be examined in the present research.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Good Mother Ã¢â¬â A Passive LifeÃ Ã "We live in a world...where the decisive deed may invite the holocaust." --John Updike An interesting question that emerges while reading The Good Mother is: Why did Anna let it happen? Of course, this question must be included among many others, most of which elicit ambiguous answers: What really happened? Was there fault to be assigned? If so, who was at fault? What is a good mother? Can a woman be a good lover and a good mother? Where must sexual boundaries be drawn between children and couples in a household? Regardless of what it is, the answer to the question Why did Anna let it happen is that she was rendered almost powerless by her gender, class, and social and family background to do anything but let it happen. She spent her life letting things happen. Anna Dunlap, recently freed from a boring marriage and involved in a sexual awakening with an unconventional man, probably thought of herself as liberated in a very literal way before and during her affair with Leo Cutter. "I had a sense, a drunken irresponsible sense, of being about to begin my life, of moving beyond the claims of my own family, of Brian, into a passionate experiment, a claim on myself." (p. 10) As events played out, however, it became obvious that Anna had not escaped her history and that her "liberation" was just an illusion. Anna grew up in the shadow of her wealthy, domineering grandfather, her emotionally absent father and her cold, achievement-oriented mother. Her mother ran her life, pushing Anna to practice piano in the hopes she would become a professional musician one day. Anna was learning that she was not in control of her life; she was forced to let life (through her mother's ambitions for her) happen to her. When she visited her grandparents' summer home in Maine, Anna witnessed her grandfather's overwhelming dominance and saw her grandmother, mother and aunts engaged in interesting but meaningless (in Anna's view) "women's" conversations. When Anna was fourteen, her mother, realizing Anna was not a musical genius, loosened her grip on her daughter and, in fact, ceased to praise her for anything. As Anna's body changed and she became attractive to boys, she tried to define herself through sex, which she found empty and unsatisfying. Once again, Anna was not in control; she let it happen.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Assia Djebars Fantasia Assia DjebarÃ¢â¬â¢s Fantasia, is an autobiographical novel of an Algerian womanÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to find her voice in a society that rewards the voiceless. In an area heavily laden with cultural traditions, she confounded these traditions by embracing the French language. Her struggles and development through the French language were very important themes within the novel. But what was DjebarÃ¢â¬â¢s link to the French language? Why did she pursue it in the manner that she did? DjebarÃ¢â¬â¢s Algerian world was filled with traditions that kept women silent. From the veils over their heads to the lack of encouragement to read or write, women were kept down. Djebar longed for freedom and found it in the French language. Flocking to the language of her enemies, Djebar found expression in its words. Ã¢â¬Å"I cohabit with the French language:Ã¢â¬ writes Djebar, Ã¢â¬Å"I may quarrel with it, I may have bursts of affection, I may subside into sudden or angry silences Ã¢â¬â theses are the normal occurrences in the life of any couple.Ã¢â¬ (213) If we examine this passage we will find what the French language truly meant to Djebar. There had been a relationship kin to marriage between French and her. This relationship starts early in her life with an introduction to French from her father. When Djebar first started to write love letters in French, she began to find the freedom she never knew existed. The language attracted her with its Ã¢â¬Å"endless jewel s.Ã¢â¬ This attraction was further spurred by the newfound freedoms she found in French schools. Djebar enjoyed the traditions and Quranic teachings imparted to her at the time however, she felt more fulfilled doing taboo things such as wearing shorts or playing sports. Djebar talks about her love affair with a student. In this affair it was not the love of the man that drove her but more importantly and ironically the budding love of the language. I believe it was the language that intrigued her the most not the actual person. In the passage, Djebar made a point to mention the language used to write the letter, but not the name of the person. To me this signifies the language as being the focal point of the event and not the actual person. If we look in the book, Djebar concentrates more deeply on her relationship with the French language over any other relationship that she had.